Dietary intake of heterocyclic amines in relation to socioeconomic, lifestyle and other dietary factors: estimates in a Swedish population
Summary, in English
Objectives: To estimate the dietary intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs), to examine the intakes in relation to socio-economics, lifestyle and other dietary factors and to compare the classification of subjects by intake of HCA versus intake of meat and fish. Design: Cross-sectional analysis within the Malmo Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort. Data were obtained from a modified diet history, a structured questionnaire on socioeconomics and lifestyle, anthropometric measurements and chemical analysis of HCAs. HCA intake was cross-classified against meat and fish intake. The likelihood of being a high consumer of HCAs was estimated by logistic regression analysis. Dietary intakes were examined across quintiles of HCA intake using analysis of variance. Setting: Baseline examinations conducted in 1991-1994 in Malmo, Sweden. Subjects: A sub-sample of 8599 women and 6575 men of the MDC cohort. Results: The mean daily HCA intake was 583 ng for women and 821 ng for men. Subjects were ranked differently with respect to HCA intake compared with intake of fried and baked meat and fish (kappa = 0.13). High HCA intake was significantly associated with lower age, overweight, sedentary lifestyle and smoking. intakes of dietary fibre, fruits and fermented milk products were negatively associated with HCA intake, while intakes of selenium, vegetables, potatoes, alcohol (among men) and non-milk-based margarines (among women) were positively associated with HCA intake. Conclusions: The estimated daily HCA intake of 690 ng is similar to values obtained elsewhere. The present study suggests that lifestyle factors (e.g. smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intakes, and types of milk products and margarines) may confound associations between HCA intake and disease. The poor correlation between HCA intake and intakes of fried meat and fish facilitates an isolation of the health effects of HCAs.