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Tereza Planck


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COX-2 and SCD, markers of inflammation and adipogenesis, are related to disease activity in Graves' ophthalmopathy


  • Tereza Planck
  • Annika de Capretz
  • Hemang Parikh
  • Christofer Frenander
  • Peter Åsman
  • Magnus Åberg
  • Leif Groop
  • Bengt Hallengren
  • Mikael Lantz

Summary, in English

Context: Inflammation and adipogenesis are two parallel processes with increased activity in severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. Objective: The aim of this work was to define target genes for therapeutic intervention in adipogenesis and inflammation in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Design: Orbital tissue was obtained from patients with ophthalmopathy in acute or chronic phase undergoing orbital surgery to study gene expression followed by the study of potential intervention mechanisms in preadipocytes. Setting: Clinic of Endocrinology, University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden. Participants: Patients in acute severe or in chronic phase of ophthalmopathy. Interventions: Lateral orbital decompression in acute phase and restorative surgery in chronic phase. In vitro treatment of preadipocytes with rosiglitazone and diclofenac. Main outcome measure: Gene expression in intraorbital tissue or preadipocytes and differentiation of preadipocytes. Results: A marker of adipose tissue, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), and the proinflammatory gene, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), were overexpressed in patients in active phase compared to the chronic phase of ophthalmopathy. In growth-arrested preadipocytes stimulated with rosiglitazone, COX-2 expression increased temporarily within 1 hour and decreased to undetectable levels after 48 hours. In contrast, SCD and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) expression increased continuously from day 2 to day 7 during adipogenesis. Diclofenac, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases with antagonistic effects on PPAR-gamma, reduced the number of mature adipocytes by approximately 50%. Conclusion: We conclude that inflammation and adipogenesis decrease with a decrease in activity of ophthalmopathy and that the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug diclofenac inhibits adipogenesis. This may represent a putative future treatment of endocrine ophthalmopathy.


  • Genomics, Diabetes and Endocrinology
  • Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö

Publishing year












Document type

Journal article


Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


  • Endocrinology and Diabetes



Research group

  • Genomics, Diabetes and Endocrinology


  • ISSN: 1557-9077