The Botnia study was initiated in 1990 on the western coast of Finland in the Gulf of Bothnia with the aim to:
- Characterize the early metabolic defects in individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes
- Identify genetic variants predisposing to type 2 diabetes
- Study how the identified genetic markers and biomarkers can predict the development of type 2 diabetes and progression of the disease
- Identify means to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.
A case-control sample consisting of 752 persons with type 2 diabetes and 715 healthy control participants from the Botnia study. Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed according to WHO criteria, with C-peptide concentrations ≥0.3 nmol/l, no GAD antibodies and age at onset >35 but <75 years of age. The control persons had fasting plasma glucose below 6.0 mmol/l and no first or second-degree family history of type 2 diabetes.