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1. Abner Louis Notkins, M.D.,

National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A.       

Analyses of autoantibodies against beta cell autoantigens. Development of the human autoantigenome and the human beta-cell specific autoantigenome. Liquid phase radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) is the method of choice for detecting autoantibodies to the major autoantigens in type 1 diabetes.   Recently we described a sensitive and highly specific new liquid phase immunoprecipitation assay that uses luminescence (LIPS) for measuring autoantibodies to insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2).  The value of the LIPS  assay is that it doesn’t require  the  use of radioisotopes  or in vitro transcription/translation to make  autoantigens. The present collaboration was initiated to determine if the LIPS assay could be used to measure autoantibodies to two of the other major autoantigens in type 1 diabetes, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and IA-2ß.

2. Olov Rolandsson, MD PhD,

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

In this collaboration we assessed the concordance in GAD65 autoantibody levels within subjects between three different GAD65Ab radio binding assays (RBA). We found discrepancies in determining the GAD65Ab positivity, which constitutes a problem when GAD65Ab are used clinically. Further methodological GAD65Ab assays studies are warranted and will continue in this collaboration.

3. Joakim Dillner, MD, PhD

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Medical Microbiology, Lund University, University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.

Collaboration on infections and virus detection in pregnant mothers using the Medical Microbiology Biobank at the University Hospital MAS. First trimester samples are anaylzed from mothers with and without islet autoantibodies at birth in the Diabetes Prediction in Skåne (DiPiS) study.

4. Christiane Hampe PhD,
University of Washington, Department of Medicine, 815 Mercer Street, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

This collaboration is a continuation of collaborative projects initiated in Seattle and now continued between Seattle and Malmö. Anti-idiotypic GAD65 autoantibodies in diabetes and dissection of the epitope pattern of GAD65 and insulin antibodies in type 1 diabetes etiology and pathogenesis are investigated along with exchange of reagents and serum samples from  a wide variety of studies.

5. Sten Ivarsson, MD, PhD, and Helena Larsson, MD, PhD,
Lund University/CRC
Department of Clinical Sciences- Pediatric Endocrinology, University Hospital MAS
SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden

The collaboration with our next door neighbors is long and productive. Studies include: 1) the Skåne-study, a cohort of 700 newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes children and youths younger than 20 yr at six clinical centers for pediatric diabetes in the region Skåne in Sweden; 2) DiPiS - initiated in 2000; 3)  BDD (Better Diabetes Diagnosis) study,  initiated in 2005 to carefully monitor all children and adolescents with newly diagnosed diabetes for genetic risk, islet autoantibodies and clinical phenotypes.   A total of 95% (40/42) Pediatric clinics in Sweden participate in BDD;  and 4) the Malmö Mothers study, which samples at birth and at diagnosis were available from children who developed type 1 diabetes between 1 and 19 yr of age. Joint quality control program of autoantibody analyses.

6. Landegren U and  Kamali-Moghaddam M,

Rudbecklaboratoriet, Uppsala Universitet

Development of the Proximity Ligand Assay (PPLA) for immunoreactive GAD65 and ZnT8 in human serum.