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Paul Franks

Paul Franks

Principal investigator

Paul Franks

Heritability of Caries Scores, Trajectories, and Disease Subtypes


  • S. Haworth
  • A. Esberg
  • P. Lif Holgerson
  • R. Kuja-Halkola
  • Nicholas J. Timpson
  • P. K.E. Magnusson
  • P. W. Franks
  • I. Johansson

Summary, in English

Previous studies report that dental caries is partially heritable, but there is uncertainty in the magnitude of genetic effects and little understanding of how genetic factors might influence caries progression or caries subtypes. This study aimed to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of different caries outcomes using a twin-based design. Analysis included up to 41,678 twins in the Swedish Twin Register aged 7 to 97 y, and dental data were obtained from preexisting dental records. The outcome measures were 1) summary indices of caries experience, 2) parameters representing trajectory in caries progression derived from longitudinal modeling, and 3) caries scores in groups of biologically similar tooth surfaces derived from hierarchical clustering of tooth surfaces (termed caries clusters). Additive genetic factors explained between 49.1% and 62.7% of variation in caries scores and between 50.0% and 60.5% of variation in caries trajectories. Seven caries clusters were identified, which had estimates of heritability lying between 41.9% and 54.3%. Shared environmental factors were important for only some of these clusters and explained 16% of variation in fissure caries in molar teeth but little variation in other clusters of caries presentation. The genetic factors influencing these clusters were only partially overlapping, suggesting that different biological processes are important in different groups of tooth surfaces and that innate liability to some patterns of caries presentation may partially explain why groups of tooth surfaces form clusters within the mouth. These results provide 1) improved quantification of genetic factors in the etiology of caries and 2) new data about the role of genetics in terms of longitudinal changes in caries status and specific patterns of disease presentation, and they may help lay the foundations for personalized interventions in the future.


  • Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology
  • EXODIAB: Excellence in Diabetes Research in Sweden
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health

Publishing year







Journal of Dental Research





Document type

Journal article


International & American Associations for Dental Research


  • Dentistry
  • Bioinformatics and Systems Biology


  • cluster analysis
  • dental caries susceptibility
  • epidemiology
  • genetics
  • longitudinal
  • twins



Research group

  • Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology


  • ISSN: 0022-0345