Your browser has javascript turned off or blocked. This will lead to some parts of our website to not work properly or at all. Turn on javascript for best performance.

The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Paul Franks

Paul Franks

Principal investigator

Paul Franks

Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis


  • A. J. Cooper
  • N. G. Forouhi
  • Z. Ye
  • B. Buijsse
  • L. Arriola
  • B. Balkau
  • A. Barricarte
  • J. W. J. Beulens
  • H. Boeing
  • F. L. Buchner
  • C. C. Dahm
  • B. de Lauzon-Guillain
  • G. Fagherazzi
  • Paul Franks
  • C. Gonzalez
  • S. Grioni
  • R. Kaaks
  • T. J. Key
  • G. Masala
  • C. Navarro
  • P. Nilsson
  • K. Overvad
  • S. Panico
  • J. Ramon Quiros
  • O. Rolandsson
  • N. Roswall
  • C. Sacerdote
  • M-J Sanchez
  • N. Slimani
  • I. Sluijs
  • A. M. W. Spijkerman
  • B. Teucher
  • A. Tjonneland
  • R. Tumino
  • S. J. Sharp
  • C. Langenberg
  • E. J. M. Feskens
  • E. Riboli
  • N. J. Wareham

Summary, in English

Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-InterAct (EPIC-InterAct) prospective case-cohort study nested within eight European countries, a representative sample of 16 154 participants and 12 403 incident cases of T2D were identified from 340 234 individuals with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. For the meta-analysis we identified prospective studies on FVI and T2D risk by systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE until April 2011. In EPIC-InterAct, estimated FVI by dietary questionnaires varied more than twofold between countries. In adjusted analyses the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest with lowest quartile of reported intake was 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for FVI; 0.89 (0.76-1.04) for fruit and 0.94 (0.84-1.05) for vegetables. Among FV subtypes, only root vegetables were inversely associated with diabetes 0.87 (0.77-0.99). In meta-analysis using pooled data from five studies including EPIC-InterAct, comparing the highest with lowest category for FVI was associated with a lower relative risk of diabetes (0.93 (0.87-1.00)). Fruit or vegetables separately were not associated with diabetes. Among FV subtypes, only green leafy vegetable (GLV) intake (relative risk: 0.84 (0.74-0.94)) was inversely associated with diabetes. Subtypes of vegetables, such as root vegetables or GLVs may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, while total FVI may exert a weaker overall effect.


  • Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology
  • EXODIAB: Excellence in Diabetes Research in Sweden
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health

Publishing year







European Journal of Clinical Nutrition





Document type

Journal article review


Nature Publishing Group


  • Nutrition and Dietetics


  • fruit
  • vegetables
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • epidemiology
  • meta-analysis
  • review



Research group

  • Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology


  • ISSN: 1476-5640