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Paul Franks

Paul Franks

Principal investigator

Paul Franks

Formalising recall by genotype as an efficient approach to detailed phenotyping and causal inference


  • Laura J. Corbin
  • Vanessa Y. Tan
  • David A. Hughes
  • Kaitlin H. Wade
  • Dirk S. Paul
  • Katherine E. Tansey
  • Frances Butcher
  • Frank Dudbridge
  • Joanna M. Howson
  • Momodou W. Jallow
  • Catherine John
  • Nathalie Kingston
  • Cecilia M. Lindgren
  • Michael O'Donavan
  • Stephen O'Rahilly
  • Michael J. Owen
  • Colin N.A. Palmer
  • Ewan R. Pearson
  • Robert A. Scott
  • David A. Van Heel
  • John Whittaker
  • Tim Frayling
  • Martin D. Tobin
  • Louise V. Wain
  • George Davey Smith
  • David M. Evans
  • Fredrik Karpe
  • Mark I. McCarthy
  • John Danesh
  • Paul W. Franks
  • Nicholas J. Timpson

Summary, in English

Detailed phenotyping is required to deepen our understanding of the biological mechanisms behind genetic associations. In addition, the impact of potentially modifiable risk factors on disease requires analytical frameworks that allow causal inference. Here, we discuss the characteristics of Recall-by-Genotype (RbG) as a study design aimed at addressing both these needs. We describe two broad scenarios for the application of RbG: studies using single variants and those using multiple variants. We consider the efficacy and practicality of the RbG approach, provide a catalogue of UK-based resources for such studies and present an online RbG study planner.


  • Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology
  • EXODIAB: Excellence in Diabetes Research in Sweden
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health

Publishing year





Nature Communications





Document type

Journal article


Nature Publishing Group


  • Medical Genetics
  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology



Research group

  • Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology


  • ISSN: 2041-1723