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Paul Franks

Paul Franks

Principal investigator

Paul Franks

Lower educational level is a predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in European countries: The EPIC-InterAct study.


  • Carlotta Sacerdote
  • Fulvio Ricceri
  • Olov Rolandsson
  • Ileana Baldi
  • Maria-Dolores Chirlaque
  • Edith Feskens
  • Benedetta Bendinelli
  • Eva Ardanaz
  • Larraitz Arriola
  • Beverley Balkau
  • Manuela Bergmann
  • Joline Wj Beulens
  • Heiner Boeing
  • Françoise Clavel-Chapelon
  • Francesca Crowe
  • Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain
  • Nita Forouhi
  • Paul W Franks
  • Valentina Gallo
  • Carlos Gonzalez
  • Jytte Halkjær
  • Anne-Kathrin Illner
  • Rudolf Kaaks
  • Timothy Key
  • Kay-Tee Khaw
  • Carmen Navarro
  • Peter Nilsson
  • Susanne Oksbjerg Dal Ton
  • Kim Overvad
  • Valeria Pala
  • Domenico Palli
  • Salvatore Panico
  • Silvia Polidoro
  • J Ramón Quirós
  • Isabelle Romieu
  • María-José Sánchez
  • Nadia Slimani
  • Ivonne Sluijs
  • Annemieke Spijkerman
  • Birgit Teucher
  • Anne Tjønneland
  • Rosario Tumino
  • Daphne van der A
  • Anne-Claire Vergnaud
  • Patrik Wennberg
  • Stephen Sharp
  • Claudia Langenberg
  • Elio Riboli
  • Paolo Vineis
  • Nicholas Wareham

Summary, in English


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. In high-income countries, low socioeconomic status seems to be related to a high incidence of T2DM, but very little is known about the intermediate factors of this relationship.


We performed a case-cohort study in eight Western European countries nested in the EPIC study (n = 340 234, 3.99 million person-years of follow-up). A random sub-cohort of 16 835 individuals and a total of 12 403 incident cases of T2DM were identified. Crude and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for each country and pooled across countries using meta-analytical methods. Age-, gender- and country-specific relative indices of inequality (RII) were used as the measure of educational level and RII tertiles were analysed.


Compared with participants with a high educational level (RII tertile 1), participants with a low educational level (RII tertile 3) had a higher risk of T2DM [HR: 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.69-1.85; P-trend < 0.01]. The HRs adjusted for physical activity, smoking status and propensity score according to macronutrient intake were very similar to the crude HR (adjusted HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.52-1.83 in men; HR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.73-2.05 in women). The HRs were attenuated only when they were further adjusted for BMI (BMI-adjusted HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.23-1.51 in men; HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.20-1.45 in women).


This study demonstrates the inequalities in the risk of T2DM in Western European countries, with an inverse relationship between educational level and risk of T2DM that is only partially explained by variations in BMI.


  • EXODIAB: Excellence in Diabetes Research in Sweden
  • Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology
  • Internal Medicine - Epidemiology
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health

Publishing year







International Journal of Epidemiology





Document type

Journal article


Oxford University Press


  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology



Research group

  • Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology
  • Internal Medicine - Epidemiology


  • ISSN: 1464-3685