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Photo: KG Pressfoto

Marju Orho-Melander


Photo: KG Pressfoto

Complement C3 and incident hospitalization due to chronic kidney disease : a population-based cohort study


  • Xue Bao
  • Yan Borné
  • Iram Faqir Muhammad
  • Christina Alexandra Schulz
  • Margaretha Persson
  • Marju Orho-Melander
  • Kaijun Niu
  • Anders Christensson
  • Gunnar Engström

Summary, in English

BACKGROUND: Circulating C3 has been associated with diabetes and hypertension, which are the leading causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD). C3 activation is considered to contribute to several renal diseases. Here we examined whether elevated C3 concentration is associated with hospitalization due to CKD in the general population, and whether this relationship is mediated by factors such as diabetes and hypertension. METHODS: Baseline plasma C3 was quantified in 4552 participants, without previous hospital admission due to CKD, from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort study. Incidence of first hospitalization due to CKD (main diagnosis) was investigated in relation to C3 levels using Cox proportional hazards regression models after a mean follow-up of 19.2 ± 4.16 years. Traditional risk factors of CKD including diabetes, blood pressure, C-reactive protein and baseline renal function were considered in adjustments and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 94 subjects were admitted to hospital due to CKD. After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for hospitalization from CKD across quartiles of C3 were 1.00 (reference), 1.68 (0.69, 4.13), 2.71 (1.15, 6.39), and 3.16 (1.36, 7.34) (p for trend = 0.003). Results were generally consistent across different sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that C3 is associated with incidence of first hospitalization due to CKD in the general population. The observed relationship cannot be entirely attributed to hyperglycemia and hypertension.


  • Cardiovascular Research - Epidemiology
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health
  • Diabetes - Cardiovascular Disease
  • Internal Medicine - Epidemiology
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden

Publishing year





BMC Nephrology



Document type

Journal article


BioMed Central (BMC)


  • Urology and Nephrology
  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology


  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Complement C3
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension



Research group

  • Cardiovascular Research - Epidemiology
  • Diabetes - Cardiovascular Disease
  • Internal Medicine - Epidemiology


  • ISSN: 1471-2369