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Maria Gomez

Maria Gomez


Maria Gomez

Symptoms and syndromes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity in pregnant women from two community cohorts


  • Erika Molteni
  • Christina M. Astley
  • Wenjie Ma
  • Carole H. Sudre
  • Laura A. Magee
  • Benjamin Murray
  • Tove Fall
  • Maria F. Gomez
  • Neli Tsereteli
  • Paul W. Franks
  • John S. Brownstein
  • Richard Davies
  • Jonathan Wolf
  • Tim D. Spector
  • Sebastien Ourselin
  • Claire J. Steves
  • Andrew T. Chan
  • Marc Modat

Summary, in English

We tested whether pregnant and non-pregnant women differ in COVID-19 symptom profile and severity, and we extended previous investigations on hospitalized pregnant women to those who did not require hospitalization. Two female community-based cohorts (18–44 years) provided longitudinal (smartphone application, N = 1,170,315, n = 79 pregnant tested positive) and cross-sectional (web-based survey, N = 1,344,966, n = 134 pregnant tested positive) data, prospectively collected through self-participatory citizen surveillance in UK, Sweden and USA. Pregnant and non-pregnant were compared for frequencies of events, including SARS-CoV-2 testing, symptoms and hospitalization rates. Multivariable regression was used to investigate symptoms severity and comorbidity effects. Pregnant and non-pregnant women positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were not different in syndromic severity, except for gastrointestinal symptoms. Pregnant were more likely to have received testing, despite reporting fewer symptoms. Pre-existing lung disease was most closely associated with syndromic severity in pregnant hospitalized. Heart and kidney diseases and diabetes increased risk. The most frequent symptoms among non-hospitalized women were anosmia [63% pregnant, 92% non-pregnant] and headache [72%, 62%]. Cardiopulmonary symptoms, including persistent cough [80%] and chest pain [73%], were more frequent among pregnant who were hospitalized. Consistent with observations in non-pregnant populations, lung disease and diabetes were associated with increased risk of more severe SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy.


  • Diabetic Complications
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden
  • Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health

Publishing year





Scientific Reports





Document type

Journal article


Nature Publishing Group


  • Infectious Medicine
  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology



Research group

  • Diabetic Complications
  • Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology


  • ISSN: 2045-2322