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Leif Groop

Leif Groop

Principal investigator

Leif Groop

Stressful Life Events and the Metabolic Syndrome - The Prevalence, Prediction and Prevention of Diabetes (PPP)-Botnia Study


  • Antti-Jussi Pyykkonen
  • Katri Raikkonen
  • Tiinamaija Tuomi
  • Johan G. Eriksson
  • Leif Groop
  • Bo Isomaa

Summary, in English

OBJECTIVE - Stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. However, the scant evidence available is not population-based, restricting the external validity of the findings. Our aim was to test associations between stressful life events, their accumulation, and the metabolic syndrome in a large population-based cohort. We also tested associations between stress and the individual components related to the metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This was a population-based, random sample of 3,407 women and men aged 18-78 years residing in Western Finland. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation criteria. The severity of 15 stressful life events pertaining to finance, work, social relationships, health, and housing was self-rated. RESULTS - in comparison with subjects not reporting any extremely stressful life events, those reporting work- or finance-related events had an increased odds for having the metabolic syndrome. The risk was further increased according to accumulation of stressful finance-related events and to having at least three stressful life events in any of the life domains assessed. Accumulation Of stressful life events was associated with insulin resistance, obesity, and triglycerides. The associations were not confounded by sex, age, lifestyle, or family history of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - Life events perceived as stressful, particularly those related to finance and work, may be a signal for poor metabolic health.


  • Genomics, Diabetes and Endocrinology
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden

Publishing year







Diabetes Care





Document type

Journal article


American Diabetes Association


  • Endocrinology and Diabetes



Research group

  • Genomics, Diabetes and Endocrinology


  • ISSN: 1935-5548