The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Leif Groop

Leif Groop

Principal investigator

Leif Groop

HLA-DQB1 genotypes, islet antibodies and beta cell function in the classification of recent-onset diabetes among young adults in the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden.


  • Ekaterine Bakhtadze
  • Henrik Borg
  • G Stenstrom
  • Per Fernlund
  • H Arnqvist
  • A Ekbom-Schnell
  • J Bolinder
  • J Eriksson
  • S Gudbjornsdottir
  • L Nystrom
  • Leif Groop
  • Göran Sundkvist

Summary, in English

The World Health Organization considers an aetiological classification of diabetes to be essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether HLA-DQB1 genotypes facilitate the classification of diabetes as compared with assessment of islet antibodies by investigating young adult diabetic patients. Blood samples were available at diagnosis for 1,872 (90%) of the 2,077 young adult patients (aged 15-34 years old) over a 5-year period in the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden. Islet antibodies were measured at diagnosis in 1,869 patients, fasting plasma C-peptide (fpC-peptide) after diagnosis in 1,522, while HLA-DQB1 genotypes were determined in 1,743. Islet antibodies were found in 83% of patients clinically considered to have type 1 diabetes, 23% with type 2 diabetes and 45% with unclassifiable diabetes. After diagnosis, median fpC-peptide concentrations were markedly lower in patients with islet antibodies than in those without (0.24 vs 0.69 nmol/l, p < 0.0001). Irrespective of clinical classification, patients with islet antibodies showed increased frequencies of at least one of the risk-associated HLA-DQB1 genotypes compared with patients without. Antibody-negative patients with risk-associated HLA-DQB1 genotypes had significantly lower median fpC-peptide concentrations than those without risk-associated genotypes (0.51 vs 0.74 nmol/l, p=0.0003). Assessment of islet antibodies is necessary for the aetiological classification of diabetic patients. HLA-DQB1 genotyping does not improve the classification in patients with islet antibodies. However, in patients without islet antibodies, HLA-DQB1 genotyping together with C-peptide measurement may be of value in differentiating between idiopathic type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.


  • Genomics, Diabetes and Endocrinology
  • Medicine, Lund
  • Clinical Chemistry, Malmö
  • Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö

Publishing year











May 31

Document type

Journal article




  • Endocrinology and Diabetes


  • C-peptide
  • islet antibodies
  • HLA-DQB1 genotypes
  • classification



Research group

  • Genomics, Diabetes and Endocrinology
  • Clinical Chemistry, Malmö


  • ISSN: 1432-0428