Metabolic impact of a family history of Type 2 diabetes. Results from a European multicentre study (EGIR)
Summary, in English
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance was found in some but not in all previous studies of non-diabetic first degree relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients. Small study groups, ethnic differences and/or non-optimal techniques may explain the conflicting results. AIM: To study the impact of a family history of Type 2 diabetes on insulin action in a large group of non-diabetic Europeans using the 'gold standard' euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique. METHODS: Non-diabetic subjects (n = 235) with a positive family history of Type 2 diabetes (FH+) and 564 subjects with no family history of diabetes (FH-) were recruited from The European Group of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) database. This database includes measurements of insulin action using the insulin clamp technique (1 mU/kg per min) in normal glucose-tolerant individuals from 20 different European centres. In a subset of subjects the measurements were performed in combination with indirect calorimetry (n = 80 vs. 213 with and without family history of Type 2 diabetes). RESULTS: The body mass index (BMI) was slightly higher in FH+ compared with FH- (26.7 +/- 4.6 vs. 25.1 +/- 4.7 kg/m(2); P < 0.02). After correction for covariates according to differences between investigators and subject characteristics including BMI (multiple regression analysis), insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was lower in FH+ compared with FH- (P < 0.00001). Insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation was slightly increased in FH+ compared with FH-, and insulin-stimulated non-oxidative glucose metabolism was consequently markedly reduced in FH+ compared with FH- (P < 0.0005). CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance is present in European non-diabetic relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients. The insulin resistance is independent of degree of obesity and is restricted solely to the pathway of non-oxidative glucose metabolism.