Improved prandial glucose control with lower risk of hypoglycemia with nateglinide than with glibenclamide in patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3
Summary, in English
OBJECTIVE - To study the effect of the short-acting insulin secretagogue nateglinide in patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3), which is characterized by a defective insulin response to glucose and hypersensitivity to sulfonylureas. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We compared the acute effect of nateglinide, glibenclamide, and placebo on prandial plasma glucose and serum insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon excursions in 15 patients with MODY3. After an overnight fast, they received on three randomized occasions placebo, 1.25 mg glibenclamide, or 30 mg nateglinide before a standard 450-kcal test meal and light bicycle exercise for 30 min Starting 140 min after the ingestion of the first test drug. RESULTS - insulin peaked earlier after nateglinide than after glibenclamide or placebo (median [interquartile range] time 70  vs. 110  vs. 110  min, P = 0.0002 and P = 0.0025, respectively). Consequently, compared with glibenclamide and placebo, the peak plasma glucose (P = 0.031 and P < 0.0001) and incremental glucose areas under curve during the first 140 min of the test (P = 0.041 and P < 0.0001) remained lower after nateglinide. The improved prandial glucose control with nateglinide was achieved with a lower peak insulin concentration than after glibenclamide (47.0 [26.0] vs. 80.4 [71.7] mU/l; P = 0.023). Exercise did not induce hypoglycemia after nateglinide or placebo, but after glibenclamide six patients experienced symptomatic hypoglycemia and three had to interrupt the test. CONCLUSIONS - A low dose of nateglinide prevents the acute postprandial rise in glucose more efficiently than glibenclamide and with less stimulation of peak insulin concentrations and less hypoglycemic symptoms.