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Leif Groop

Leif Groop

Principal investigator

Leif Groop

Smoking and the risk of LADA : Results from a Swedish population-based case-control study

Author

  • Bahareh Rasouli
  • Tomas Andersson
  • Per Ola Carlsson
  • Valdemar Grill
  • Leif Groop
  • Mats Martinell
  • Petter Storm
  • Tiinamaija Tuomi
  • Sofia Carlsson

Summary, in English

OBJECTIVE: Smoking is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes. In contrast, it has been proposed that smoking may reduce the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), but studies are scarce. We aimed to study the impact of smoking on LADA and type 2 diabetes risks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from a Swedish case-control study including incident case patients with LADA (GAD antibody [GADA] positive, n = 377) and type 2 diabetes (GADA negative, n = 1,188) and control subjects randomly selected from the population (n = 1,472). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs by logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: There was no indication of reduced risk of LADA in smokers; instead, heavy smoking was associated with an increased risk of LADA (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02-1.84). Heavy smokers had higher levels of HOMA of insulin resistance (9.89 vs. 4.38, P = 0.0479) and HOMA of β-cell function (55.7 vs. 42.5, P = 0.0204), but lower levels of GADA (75 vs. 250, P = 0.0445), compared with never smokers. Smokers also displayedanincreased risk oftype2 diabetes (OR in eversmokers 1.53, 95% CI 1.25-1.88). CONCLUSIONS: In this large population of LADA patients, we did not observe a protective effect of smoking on autoimmunity and the risk of LADA. A protective effect could possibly be masked by a smoking-induced aggravation of insulin resistance, akin to the diabetogenic effect seen in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Department/s

  • Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden

Publishing year

2016

Language

English

Pages

794-800

Publication/Series

Diabetes Care

Volume

39

Issue

5

Document type

Journal article

Publisher

American Diabetes Association

Topic

  • Endocrinology and Diabetes

Keywords

  • ANDIS
  • diabetes
  • diabetics

Status

Published

ISBN/ISSN/Other

  • ISSN: 0149-5992