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Jan Apelqvist


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Guidelines of the international writing group on the diabetic foot on diagnosis


  • Robert J. Hinchliffe
  • Rachael O. Forsythe
  • Jan Apelqvist
  • Ed J. Boyko
  • Robert Fitridge
  • Joon Pio Hong
  • Konstantinos Katsanos
  • Joseph L. Mills
  • Sigrid Nikol
  • Jim Reekers
  • Maarit Venermo
  • R. Eugene Zierler
  • Nicolaas C. Schaper

Summary, in English

The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) has published evidence-based guidelines on the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease since 1999. This guideline is on the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in patients with foot ulcers and diabetes and updates the previous IWGDF Guideline. Up to 50% of patients with diabetes and foot ulceration have concurrent PAD, which confers a significantly elevated risk of adverse limb events and cardiovascular disease. We know that the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of these patients are markedly different to patients with diabetes who do not have PAD and yet there are few good quality studies addressing this important subset of patients. We followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology to devise clinical questions and critically important outcomes in the patient-intervention-comparison-outcome (PICO) format, to conduct a systematic review of the medical-scientific literature, and to write recommendations and their rationale. The recommendations are based on the quality of evidence found in the systematic review, expert opinion where evidence was not available, and a weighing of the benefits and harms, patient preferences, feasibility and applicability, and costs related to the intervention. We here present the updated 2019 guidelines on diagnosis, prognosis, and management of PAD in patients with a foot ulcer and diabetes, and we suggest some key future topics of particular research interest.

Publishing year





Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews

Document type

Journal article


John Wiley & Sons Inc.


  • Family Medicine
  • Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy


  • diabetic foot
  • diagnosis
  • foot ulcer
  • guidelines
  • peripheral artery disease
  • prognosis
  • surgery
  • vascular disease




  • ISSN: 1520-7552