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Diet quality and change in blood lipids during 16 years of follow-up and their interaction with genetic risk for dyslipidemia

Author:
  • Emily Sonestedt
  • Sophie Hellstrand
  • Isabel Drake
  • Christina Alexandra Schulz
  • Ulrika Ericson
  • Joanna Hlebowicz
  • Margaretha M. Persson
  • Bo Gullberg
  • Bo Hedblad
  • Gunnar Engström
  • Marju Orho-Melander
Publishing year: 2016-05-09
Language: English
Publication/Series: Nutrients
Volume: 8
Issue: 5
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: MDPI AG

Abstract english

A high diet quality according to the Swedish nutrition recommendations is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. To further clarify this protective association, we examined the association between high diet quality and change in triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) after 16 years of follow-up in 3152 individuals (61% women; 46–68 years at baseline). In addition, we examined if genetic risk scores composed of 80 lipid-associated genetic variants modify these associations. A diet quality index based on intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, sucrose, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and fish was constructed. A high diet quality was associated with lower risk of developing high triglycerides (p = 0.02) and high LDL-C (p = 0.03) during follow-up compared with a low diet quality. We found an association between diet quality and long-term change in HDL-C only among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C as opposed to those with higher genetic risk (p-interaction = 0.04). Among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C, low diet quality was associated with decreased HDL-C during follow-up (p = 0.05). In conclusion, individuals with high adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendation had lower risk of developing high triglycerides and LDL-C during 16 years of follow-up.

Keywords

  • Endocrinology and Diabetes
  • Diet
  • Epidemiology
  • Genetics
  • Lipids
  • Lipoproteins
  • Nutrition

Other

Published
  • Diabetes - Cardiovascular Disease
  • Cardiovascular Research - Immunity and Athersosclerosis
  • Internal Medicine - Epidemiology
  • Nutrition Epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Research - Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 2072-6643
Isabel Drake
E-mail: isabel [dot] drake [at] med [dot] lu [dot] se

Lund University Diabetes Centre, CRC, SUS Malmö, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, House 91:12. SE-214 28 Malmö. Telephone: +46 40 39 10 00