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ludc webb

Hanna Markstad

Doctoral student

ludc webb

Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in the General Population


  • Göran Bergström
  • Margaretha Persson
  • Martin Adiels
  • Elias Björnson
  • Carl Bonander
  • Håkan Ahlström
  • Joakim Alfredsson
  • Oskar Angerås
  • Göran Berglund
  • Anders Blomberg
  • John Brandberg
  • Mats Börjesson
  • Kerstin Cederlund
  • Ulf de Faire
  • Olov Duvernoy
  • Örjan Ekblom
  • Gunnar Engström
  • Jan E Engvall
  • Erika Fagman
  • Mats Eriksson
  • David Erlinge
  • Björn Fagerberg
  • Agneta Flinck
  • Isabel Gonçalves
  • Emil Hagström
  • Ola Hjelmgren
  • Lars Lind
  • Eva Lindberg
  • Per Lindqvist
  • Johan Ljungberg
  • Martin Magnusson
  • Maria Mannila
  • Hanna Markstad
  • Moman A Mohammad
  • Fredrik H Nystrom
  • Ellen Ostenfeld
  • Anders Persson
  • Annika Rosengren
  • Anette Sandström
  • Anders Själander
  • Magnus C Sköld
  • Johan Sundström
  • Eva Swahn
  • Stefan Söderberg
  • Kjell Torén
  • Carl Johan Östgren
  • Tomas Jernberg

Summary, in English

BACKGROUND: Early detection of coronary atherosclerosis using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), in addition to coronary artery calcification (CAC) scoring, may help inform prevention strategies. We used CCTA to determine the prevalence, severity, and characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis and its association with CAC scores in a general population.

METHODS: We recruited 30 154 randomly invited individuals age 50 to 64 years to SCAPIS (the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study). The study includes individuals without known coronary heart disease (ie, no previous myocardial infarctions or cardiac procedures) and with high-quality results from CCTA and CAC imaging performed using dedicated dual-source CT scanners. Noncontrast images were scored for CAC. CCTA images were visually read and scored for coronary atherosclerosis per segment (defined as no atherosclerosis, 1% to 49% stenosis, or ≥50% stenosis). External validity of prevalence estimates was evaluated using inverse probability for participation weighting and Swedish register data.

RESULTS: In total, 25 182 individuals without known coronary heart disease were included (50.6% women). Any CCTA-detected atherosclerosis was found in 42.1%; any significant stenosis (≥50%) in 5.2%; left main, proximal left anterior descending artery, or 3-vessel disease in 1.9%; and any noncalcified plaques in 8.3% of this population. Onset of atherosclerosis was delayed on average by 10 years in women. Atherosclerosis was more prevalent in older individuals and predominantly found in the proximal left anterior descending artery. Prevalence of CCTA-detected atherosclerosis increased with increasing CAC scores. Among those with a CAC score >400, all had atherosclerosis and 45.7% had significant stenosis. In those with 0 CAC, 5.5% had atherosclerosis and 0.4% had significant stenosis. In participants with 0 CAC and intermediate 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease according to the pooled cohort equation, 9.2% had CCTA-verified atherosclerosis. Prevalence estimates had excellent external validity and changed marginally when adjusted to the age-matched Swedish background population.

CONCLUSIONS: Using CCTA in a large, random sample of the general population without established disease, we showed that silent coronary atherosclerosis is common in this population. High CAC scores convey a significant probability of substantial stenosis, and 0 CAC does not exclude atherosclerosis, particularly in those at higher baseline risk.


  • Internal Medicine - Epidemiology
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health
  • Ophthalmology (Malmö)
  • Cardiovascular Research - Epidemiology
  • Molecular Cardiology
  • Cardiovascular Research - Translational Studies
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden
  • WCMM-Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine
  • Cardiovascular Research - Hypertension
  • Lund Cardiac MR Group

Publishing year












Document type

Journal article


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins


  • Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems



Research group

  • Internal Medicine - Epidemiology
  • Ophthalmology (Malmö)
  • Cardiovascular Research - Epidemiology
  • Molecular Cardiology
  • Cardiovascular Research - Translational Studies
  • Cardiovascular Research - Hypertension
  • Lund Cardiac MR Group


  • ISSN: 1524-4539