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Preoperative CT of cardiac veins for planning left ventricular lead placement in cardiac resynchronization therapy

  • Hanna Markstad
  • Zoltan Bakos
  • Ellen Ostenfeld
  • Mats Geijer
  • Marcus Carlsson
  • Rasmus Borgquist
Publishing year: 2019
Language: English
Pages: 859-865
Publication/Series: Acta Radiologica
Volume: 60
Issue: 7
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

Abstract english

Background: Successful cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) requires appropriate left ventricular (LV) lead placement on a suitable segment of the free LV wall. Current guidelines suggest targeted lead placement, but the individual anatomy of the cardiac veins is often a limiting factor. Purpose: To map cardiac veins with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and plot the veins in cardiac segments to facilitate successful CRT implantation. Material and Methods: Ninety-nine patients were included (mean age = 68 ± 9 years; 26% women; 46% ischemic cardiomyopathy). Contrast-enhanced, ECG-gated, dose-modulated MDCT was used to depict the coronary veins. CT data were reformatted into short-axis view. Veins with diameter ≥1.5 mm and traversing the free LV wall were manually transferred into a 17-segment bulls-eye plot model. Results: In 98 patients, a CT scan with acceptable image quality was obtained. Median radiation dose as dose-length protocol was 231 mGy/cm (interquartile range = 276 mGy/cm). Mean contrast dose, expressed as total iodine load, was 38 ± 8 g. A median of three suitable veins (range = 1–7) covered a mean of 4.4 ± 1.5 relevant LV segments. There was no difference between patients with dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy in number of veins (2.5 vs. 2.7, P = 0.45) or in number of cardiac segments traversed by suitable veins (4.4 vs. 4.5, P = 0.74). Conclusion: In CRT patients, MDCT can be used for preoperative mapping of the cardiac veins to assess availability of suitable veins in potential target segments for pacemaker-lead placement. Using the 17-segment plot of the left ventricle may improve the clinical usefulness of the data.


  • Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • coronary sinus anatomy
  • heart failure
  • multidetector computed tomography


  • Cardiovascular Research - Epidemiology
  • Arrhytmias and Cardiac Device treatment
  • Lund Cardiac MR Group
  • Muskuloskeletal radiologi
  • ISSN: 0284-1851

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