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Erik Renström

Erik Renström

Vice-chancellor

Erik Renström

Insulin granule dynamics in pancreatic beta cells

Author

  • Patrik Rorsman
  • Erik Renström

Summary, in English

Glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to a step increase in blood glucose concentrations follows a biphasic time course consisting of a rapid and transient first phase followed by a slowly developing and sustained second phase. Because Type 2 diabetes involves defects of insulin secretion, manifested as a loss of first phase and a reduction of second phase, it is important to understand the cellular mechanisms underlying biphasic insulin secretion. Insulin release involves the packaging of insulin in small (diameter approximate to0.3 mum) secretory granules, the trafficking of these granules to the plasma membrane, the exocytotic fusion of the granules with the plasma membrane and eventually the retrieval of the secreted membranes by endocytosis. Until recently, studies on insulin secretion have been confined to the appearance of insulin in the extracellular space and the cellular events preceding exocytosis have been inaccessible to more detailed analysis. Evidence from a variety of secretory tissues, including pancreatic islet cells suggests, however, that the secretory granules can be functionally divided into distinct pools that are distinguished by their release competence and/or proximity to the plasma membrane. The introduction of fluorescent proteins that can be targeted to the secretory granules, in combination with the advent of new techniques that allow real-time imaging of granule trafficking in living cells (granule dynamics), has led to an explosion of our knowledge of the pre-exocytotic and post-exocytotic processes in the beta cell. Here we discuss these observations in relation to previous functional and ultra-structural data as well as the secretory defects of Type 2 diabetes.

Department/s

  • Islet cell physiology
  • Diabetes - Islet Patophysiology

Publishing year

2003

Language

English

Pages

1029-1045

Publication/Series

Diabetologia

Volume

46

Issue

8

Document type

Journal article review

Publisher

Springer

Topic

  • Endocrinology and Diabetes

Keywords

  • confocal microscopy
  • diabetes
  • exocytosis
  • secretory granules
  • pancreatic islets
  • insulin

Status

Published

Research group

  • Islet cell physiology
  • Diabetes - Islet Patophysiology

ISBN/ISSN/Other

  • ISSN: 1432-0428