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Emily Sonestedt

Emily Sonestedt

Associate senior lecturer

Emily Sonestedt

Comparison of risk factors for Parkinson's disease, coronary events and ischemic stroke


  • Lu Song
  • Shunming Zhang
  • Huiping Li
  • Oskar Hansson
  • Emily Sonestedt
  • Yan Borné

Summary, in English

Parkinson’s disease (PD) and cardiovascular disease share many important risk factors, but some associations differ. However, there are no studies that have compared their shared and specific risk factors. The present study aimed to compare risk factors for PD, coronary events, or ischemic stroke. We prospectively analyzed data from 26,210 participants with lifestyle factors aged 45–73 years enrolled between 1991 and 1996. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of PD, coronary events, or ischemic stroke in relation to each factor. A modified Lunn-McNeil competing risk analysis was performed to compare the HR strength of the three outcomes. A total of 486 incident PD cases, 3288 coronary events cases and 2,972 ischemic stroke cases occurred during a mean follow-up of 21 years. In multivariable models, age (per additional year: HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.09), diabetes (HR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.26), neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (per SD increase: HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.19), and fasting blood glucose (per SD increase: HR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.36) are the risk factors for PD, whereas female sex (HR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.67), smoking (current smoker [HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.74] and former smoker [HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99]), HDL (per SD increase: HR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.95), and LDL (per SD increase: HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.96) are the protective factors. A comparison of risk factors for PD, coronary events, and ischemic stroke showed the three outcomes had concordant and discordant risk factors. Our results indicated the risk factor profiles for PD, coronary events, or ischemic stroke had many similarities, but also significant differences.


  • Nutrition Epidemiology
  • Clinical Memory Research
  • MultiPark: Multidisciplinary research focused on Parkinson´s disease
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health

Publishing year







npj Parkinson's Disease



Document type

Journal article


Springer Nature


  • Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology



Research group

  • Nutrition Epidemiology
  • Clinical Memory Research


  • ISSN: 2373-8057