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Emily Sonestedt

Emily Sonestedt

Associate senior lecturer

Emily Sonestedt

Effect of AMY1 copy number variation and various doses of starch intake on glucose homeostasis : data from a cross-sectional observational study and a crossover meal study


  • Mary Farrell
  • Stina Ramne
  • Phébée Gouinguenet
  • Louise Brunkwall
  • Ulrika Ericson
  • Anne Raben
  • Peter M Nilsson
  • Marju Orho-Melander
  • Yvonne Granfeldt
  • Juscelino Tovar
  • Emily Sonestedt

Summary, in English

BACKGROUND: Copy number (CN) variation (CNV) of the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) influences the ability to digest starch and may influence glucose homeostasis, obesity and gut microbiota composition. Hence, the aim was to examine the association of AMY1 CNV with fasting glucose, BMI, and gut microbiota composition considering habitual starch intake and to investigate the effect of AMY1 CNV on the postprandial response after two different starch doses.

METHODS: The Malmö Offspring Study (n = 1764, 18-71 years) was used to assess interaction effects between AMY1 CNV (genotyped by digital droplet polymerase chain reaction) and starch intake (assessed by 4-day food records) on fasting glucose, BMI, and 64 gut bacteria (16S rRNA sequencing). Participants with low (≤ 4 copies, n = 9) and high (≥ 10 copies, n = 10) AMY1 CN were recruited for a crossover meal study to compare postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses to 40 g and 80 g starch from white wheat bread.

RESULTS: In the observational study, no overall associations were found between AMY1 CNV and fasting glucose, BMI, or gut microbiota composition. However, interaction effects between AMY1 CNV and habitual starch intake on fasting glucose (P = 0.03) and BMI (P = 0.05) were observed, suggesting inverse associations between AMY1 CNV and fasting glucose and BMI at high starch intake levels and positive association at low starch intake levels. No associations with the gut microbiota were observed. In the meal study, increased postprandial glucose (P = 0.02) and insulin (P = 0.05) were observed in those with high AMY1 CN after consuming 40 g starch. This difference was smaller and nonsignificant after consuming 80 g starch.

CONCLUSIONS: Starch intake modified the observed association between AMY1 CNV and fasting glucose and BMI. Furthermore, depending on the starch dose, a higher postprandial glucose and insulin response was observed in individuals with high AMY1 CN than in those with low AMY1 CN.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: , NCT03974126 . Registered 4 June 2019-retrospectively registered.


  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden
  • Nutrition Epidemiology
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health
  • Diabetes - Cardiovascular Disease
  • Internal Medicine - Epidemiology
  • Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition

Publishing year







Genes & Nutrition



Document type

Journal article


BioMed Central (BMC)


  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Endocrinology and Diabetes




  • Postprandial Effect of High-starch Meals in Individuals With Low and High Copy Number of the Salivary Amylase Gene

Research group

  • Nutrition Epidemiology
  • Diabetes - Cardiovascular Disease
  • Internal Medicine - Epidemiology


  • ISSN: 1555-8932