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Food patterns in relation to weight change and incidence of type 2 diabetes, coronary events and stroke in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort

  • Ulrika Ericson
  • Louise Brunkwall
  • Joana Alves Dias
  • Isabel Drake
  • Sophie Hellstrand
  • Bo Gullberg
  • Emily Sonestedt
  • Peter M. Nilsson
  • Elisabet Wirfält
  • Marju Orho-Melander
Publishing year: 2019
Language: English
Pages: 1801-1814
Publication/Series: European Journal of Nutrition
Volume: 58
Issue: 5
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: Springer

Abstract english

Purpose: We examined if data-driven food-patterns associate with weight change, incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary events (CE) and stroke. Methods: The study included 20,487 individuals (61% women) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, 45–74 years, without diabetes and CVD at baseline (1991–1996) and who did not report dietary changes. Diet was measured with a modified diet history method. During 15 years follow-up, 2206 T2D, 1571 CE and 1332 stroke cases were identified. Data on weight change after 16.7 years were available in 2627 individuals. Results: From principal component analysis, we identified six food-patterns which were similar in women and men. The first pattern, explaining 7% of the variance, was characterized by high intake of fibre-rich bread, breakfast cereals, fruits, vegetables, fish and low-fat yoghurt, and by low intake of low-fibre bread. This health conscious pattern was associated with lower T2D risk (HR comparing highest quintile with lowest: 0.75; 95% CI 0.61–0.92, 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–1.00 in women and men, respectively, P trends = 0.003, 0.01) and CE (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.58–1.02, HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.68–1.01, P trends = 0.05, 0.07), and in men also with lower risk of ischemic stroke (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.54–0.88; P trend = 0.001) and less pronounced weight gain (0.93 kg/10 years, P trend = 0.03). A low-fat product pattern was associated with increased T2D risk in gender combined analyses (P trend = 0.03) and a pattern characterized by dressing and vegetables with lower CE risk in men (P trend = 0.02). Conclusions: Our main finding was that a dietary pattern indicating health conscious food choices was associated with lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases in both genders.


  • Endocrinology and Diabetes
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Epidemiology
  • Food intake
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Weight gain


  • Diabetes - Cardiovascular Disease
  • Nutrition Epidemiology
  • Internal Medicine - Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 1436-6207
Emily Sonestedt
E-mail: emily [dot] sonestedt [at] med [dot] lu [dot] se

Associate senior lecturer

Nutrition Epidemiology

+46 40 39 13 25

+46 73 700 71 45


Jan Waldenströms gata 35, CRC 60:13, Malmö


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Lund University Diabetes Centre, CRC, SUS Malmö, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, House 91:12. SE-214 28 Malmö. Telephone: +46 40 39 10 00