The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Default user image.

Eero Lindholm

Associate professor

Default user image.

Possible human leukocyte antigen-mediated genetic interaction between type 1 and type 2 Diabetes


  • Haiyan Li
  • Eero Lindholm
  • Peter Almgren
  • A Gustafsson
  • C Forsblom
  • Leif Groop
  • T Tuomi

Summary, in English

We assessed the prevalence of families with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Finland; and we studied, in patients with type 2 diabetes, the association between a family history of type 1 diabetes, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies (GADab), and type 1 diabetes-associated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1-genotypes. Further, in mixed type 1/type 2 diabetes families, we investigated whether sharing an HLA haplotype with a family member with type 1 diabetes influenced the manifestation of type 2 diabetes. Among 695 families ascertained through the presence of more than 1 patient with type 2 diabetes, 100 (14%) also had members with type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetic patients from the mixed families had, more often, GADab (18% vs. 8%, P < 0.0001) and DQB1*0302/X genotype (25% vs. 12%, P = 0.005) than patients from families with only type 2 diabetes; but they had a lower frequency of DQB1*02/0302 genotype, compared with adult-onset type 1 patients (4% vs. 27%, P < 0.0001). In the mixed families, the insulin response to oral glucose load was impaired in patients who had HLA class II risk haplotypes, either DR3(17)-DQA1*0501-DQB1*02 or DR4*0401/4-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302, compared with patients without such haplotypes (P = 0.016). This finding was independent of the presence of GADab. We conclude that type 1 and type 2 diabetes cluster in the same families. A shared genetic background with a patient with type 1 diabetes predisposes type 2 diabetic patients both to autoantibody positivity and, irrespective of antibody positivity, to impaired insulin secretion. The findings support a possible genetic interaction between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mediated by the HLA locus.


  • Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö
  • Genomics, Diabetes and Endocrinology

Publishing year







Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism





Document type

Journal article


Oxford University Press


  • Clinical Medicine
  • Endocrinology and Diabetes



Research group

  • Genomics, Diabetes and Endocrinology


  • ISSN: 1945-7197