The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Default user image.

Carina Törn


Default user image.

Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) is the most important factor for prediction of insulin therapy within 3 years in young adult diabetic patients not classified as Type 1 diabetes on clinical grounds


  • Carina Törn
  • Mona Landin-Olsson
  • Jan Östman
  • Bengt Scherstén
  • Hans Arnqvist
  • Göran Blohmé
  • Elisabeth Björk
  • Jan Bolinder
  • Jan Eriksson
  • Bengt Littorin
  • Lennarth Nyström
  • Göran Sundkvist
  • Åke Lernmark

Summary, in English

Background Differentiation between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in adults is difficult at diagnosis. In this study we tested the hypothesis that autoantibodies at diagnosis are predictive for insulin treatment within 3 years in patients initially not classified as Type 1 diabetes. Methods In a nationwide population-based study, blood samples were obtained from 764 patients, all diagnosed with diabetes during a 2-year period. At diagnosis, 583 (76%) were classified as Type 1, 110 (14%) as Type 2 and 71 (9.3%) could not be classified. Results Among patients not classified as Type 1 diabetes, 52 (47%) of Type 2 and 42 (59%) of unclassified patients were positive for islet cell antibodies CICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) or tyrosine phosphatase antibodies (IA-2A). These patients (n=94) had lower body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001) and lower C-peptide (p<0.001) compared to the autoantibody negative patients (n=87). Compared to clinically classified Type 1 diabetes patients positive for autoantibodies (n=477), they have higher BMI (p<0.001), higher C-peptide (p<0.001) and the same levels of ICA, GADA and IA-2A. After 3 years, 93% of autoantibody positive patients initially not classified as Type 1 were on insulin. When ICA, GADA, IA-2A, BMI and C-peptide were tested in a multiple logistic regression, only GADA was signiificant for insulin treatment within 3 years (OR = 18.8; 95% CI 1.8-191) in patients treated with diet or oral drugs at diagnosis. Conclusions A correct classification is difficult in adult diabetic patients. The presence of pancreatic autoantibodies, especially GADA, at diagnosis of diabetes are highly predictive for insulin therapy within 3 years from diagnosis.


  • Family Medicine and Community Medicine

Publishing year







Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews





Document type

Journal article


John Wiley & Sons Inc.


  • Endocrinology and Diabetes


  • Body mass index (BMI)
  • C-peptide
  • Diabetes classification
  • GADA
  • IA-2A
  • ICA



Research group

  • Family Medicine and Community Medicine


  • ISSN: 1520-7552