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Carin Andrén Aronsson

Head of unit

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25(OH)D Levels in Infancy Is Associated With Celiac Disease Autoimmunity in At-Risk Children : A Case–Control Study


  • Carin Andrén Aronsson
  • Xiang Liu
  • Jill M. Norris
  • Ulla Uusitalo
  • Martha D. Butterworth
  • Sibylle Koletzko
  • Suvi M. Virtanen
  • Iris Erlund
  • Kalle Kurppa
  • William A. Hagopian
  • Marian J. Rewers
  • Jin Xiong She
  • Jorma Toppari
  • Anette G. Ziegler
  • Beena Akolkar
  • Jeffrey P. Krischer
  • Daniel Agardh

Summary, in English

Objectives: An observed variation in the risk of celiac disease, according to the season of birth, suggests that vitamin D may affect the development of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if vitamin D concentration is associated with the risk of celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA) in genetically at-risk children. Study Design: Children prospectively followed in the multinational The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young study, conducted at six centers in Europe and the US, were selected for a 1-to-3 nested case–control study. In total, 281 case–control sets were identified. CDA was defined as positivity for tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA) on two or more consecutive visits. Vitamin D was measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in all plasma samples prior to, and including, the first tTGA positive visit. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between 25(OH)D and risk of CDA. Results: No significant association was seen between 25(OH)D concentrations (per 5 nmol/L increase) and risk for CDA development during early infancy (odds ratio [OR] 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95–1.04) or childhood (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.97–1.07). When categorizing 25(OH)D concentrations, there was an increased risk of CDA with 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.29, 3.84) and >75 nmol/L (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.28–3.44) in early infancy, as compared with 50–75 nmol/L. Conclusion: This study indicates that 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L and >75 nmol/L during early infancy were associated with an increased risk of developing CDA in genetically at-risk children. The non-linear relationship raises the need for more studies on the possible role of 25(OH)D in the relation to celiac disease onset.


  • Celiac Disease and Diabetes Unit
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health

Publishing year





Frontiers in nutrition



Document type

Journal article


Frontiers Media S. A.


  • Nutrition and Dietetics


  • celiac disease
  • celiac disease autoimmunity
  • children
  • infants
  • vitamin D



Research group

  • Celiac Disease and Diabetes Unit


  • ISSN: 2296-861X