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Carin Andrén Aronsson

Head of unit

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Vitamin D and probiotics supplement use in young children with genetic risk for type 1 diabetes


  • J. Yang
  • R. N. Tamura
  • U. M. Uusitalo
  • C. A. Aronsson
  • K. Silvis
  • A. Riikonen
  • N. Frank
  • G. Joslowski
  • C. Winkler
  • J. M. Norris
  • S. M. Virtanen

Summary, in English

Background/Objectives:Vitamin D and probiotics are nutrients of interest in the context of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with vitamin D and probiotic supplementations among young children with genetic risk of T1D.Subjects/Methods:Use of supplements during the first 2 years of life was collected prospectively from 8674 children in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study.Results:Single and/or multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements were reported by 81% of the children. The majority of participants in Finland, Germany and Sweden (97-99%) and 50% in the United States received vitamin D supplements that were mostly MVMs. Probiotics use varied from 6% in the United States to 60% in Finland and was primarily from probiotics-only preparations. More than 80% of the vitamin D and probiotics supplementation was initiated during infancy, and more than half of the uses lasted longer than a year. Being the first child, longer duration of breastfeeding, born in a later year, older maternal age and higher maternal education level were associated with both vitamin D and probiotics use. Shorter gestational age and mother not smoking during pregnancy were associated with a higher likelihood of probiotics supplementation only.Conclusions:Vitamin D and probiotics supplementations are popular in children 0-2 years old and are associated with common factors. Data documented here will allow evaluation of the relationship between early childhood dietary intake and the development of islet autoimmunity and progression to T1D.


  • Celiac Disease and Diabetes Unit

Publishing year







European Journal of Clinical Nutrition





Document type

Journal article


Nature Publishing Group


  • Pediatrics
  • Nutrition and Dietetics



Research group

  • Celiac Disease and Diabetes Unit


  • ISSN: 0954-3007