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Carin Andrén Aronsson

Head of unit

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Intake of Energy and Protein is Associated with Overweight Risk at Age 5.5 Years : Results from the Prospective TEDDY Study


  • Andreas Beyerlein
  • Ulla M. Uusitalo
  • Suvi M. Virtanen
  • Kendra Vehik
  • Jimin Yang
  • Christiane Winkler
  • Mathilde Kersting
  • Sibylle Koletzko
  • Desmond Schatz
  • Carin Andrén Aronsson
  • Helena Elding Larsson
  • Jeffrey P. Krischer
  • Anette G. Ziegler
  • Jill M. Norris
  • Sandra Hummel

Summary, in English

Objective: The associations of energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake with weight status up to the age of 5.5 years were prospectively assessed in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Methods: Food record data (over 3 days) and BMI measurements between 0.25 and 5.5 years were available from 5,563 children with an increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes followed from shortly after birth. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for overweight and obesity by previous intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Having overweight or obesity at the age of 5.5 years was positively associated with mean energy intake in previous age intervals (e.g., adjusted OR [95% CI] for overweight: 1.06 [1.04-1.09] per 100 kcal intake at the age of 4.5-5.0 years) and with protein intake after the age of 3.5 and 4.5 years, respectively (e.g., adjusted OR for overweight: 1.06 [1.03-1.09] per 1% of energy intake at the age of 4.5-5.0 years). The respective associations with carbohydrate and fat intake were less consistent. Conclusions: These findings indicate that energy and protein intake are positively associated with increased risk for overweight in childhood but yield no evidence for potential programming effects of protein intake in infancy.


  • Celiac Disease and Diabetes Unit
  • Paediatric Endocrinology
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden

Publishing year












Document type

Journal article


Nature Publishing Group


  • Nutrition and Dietetics



Research group

  • Celiac Disease and Diabetes Unit
  • Paediatric Endocrinology


  • ISSN: 1930-7381