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Carin Andrén Aronsson

Head of unit

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Caesarean Section on The Risk of Celiac Disease in the Offspring : The Teddy Study


  • Sibylle Koletzko
  • Hye-Seung Lee
  • Andreas Beyerlein
  • Carin A. Aronsson
  • Michael Hummel
  • Edwin Liu
  • Ville Simell
  • Kalle Kurppa
  • Åke Lernmark
  • William Hagopian
  • Marian Rewers
  • Jin-Xiong She
  • Olli Simell
  • Jorma Toppari
  • Anette G. Ziegler
  • Jeffrey Krischer
  • Daniel Agardh

Summary, in English

OBJECTIVE:: Caesarean section (C-section) is associated with various immune-mediated diseases in the offspring. We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery and celiac disease (CD) and CD autoimmunity (CDA) in a multinational birth cohort. METHODS:: From 2004 to 2010 infants from the general population who tested positive for HLA DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 were enrolled in The Environmental Determinants for Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Children were annually screened for transglutaminase autoantibodies, if positive re-tested after 3–6 months and those persistently positive defined as CDA. Associations of C-section with maternal (age, education level, parity, pre-pregnancy weight, diabetes, smoking, weight gain during pregnancy) and child characteristics (gestational age, birth weight) were examined by Fisherʼs exact test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CDA or CD were calculated by Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS:: Of 6,087 analyzed singletons 1600 (26%) were born by C-section (Germany 38%, US 37%, Finland 18%, Sweden 16%), the remaining vaginally without instrumental support; 979 (16%) had developed CDA and 343 (6%) CD. C-section was associated with lower risk for CDA (HR?=?0.85, [95% CI 0.73, 0.99], p?=?0.032) and CD (HR?=?0.75, [95% CI 0.58, 0.98], p?=?0.034). After adjusting for country, sex, HLA-genotype, CD in family, maternal education and breastfeeding duration, significance was lost for CDA (HR?=?0.91, [95% CI 0.78, 1.06], p?=?0.20) and CD (HR?=?0.85, [95% CI 0.65, 1.11], p?=?0.24). Pre-surgical ruptured membranes had no influence on CDA or CD development. CONCLUSION:: C-section is not associated with increased risk for CDA or CD in the offspring.


  • Celiac Disease and Diabetes Unit
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden

Publishing year







Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition





Document type

Journal article


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins


  • Pediatrics



Research group

  • Celiac Disease and Diabetes Unit


  • ISSN: 0277-2116