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Carin Andrén Aronsson

Head of unit

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Early probiotic supplementation and the risk of celiac disease in children at genetic risk


  • Ulla Uusitalo
  • Carin Andren Aronsson
  • Xiang Liu
  • Kalle Kurppa
  • Jimin Yang
  • Edwin Liu
  • Jennifer Skidmore
  • Christiane Winkler
  • Marian J. Rewers
  • William A. Hagopian
  • Jin Xiong She
  • Jorma Toppari
  • Anette G. Ziegler
  • Beena Akolkar
  • Jill M. Norris
  • Suvi M. Virtanen
  • Jeffrey P. Krischer
  • Daniel Agardh

Summary, in English

Probiotics are linked to positive regulatory effects on the immune system. The aim of the study was to examine the association between the exposure of probiotics via dietary supplements or via infant formula by the age of 1 year and the development of celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA) and celiac disease among a cohort of 6520 genetically susceptible children. Use of probiotics during the first year of life was reported by 1460 children. Time-to-event analysis was used to examine the associations. Overall exposure of probiotics during the first year of life was not associated with either CDA (n = 1212) (HR 1.15; 95%CI 0.99, 1.35; p = 0.07) or celiac disease (n = 455) (HR 1.11; 95%CI 0.86, 1.43; p = 0.43) when adjusting for known risk factors. Intake of probiotic dietary supplements, however, was associated with a slightly increased risk of CDA (HR 1.18; 95%CI 1.00, 1.40; p = 0.043) compared to children who did not get probiotics. It was concluded that the overall exposure of probiotics during the first year of life was not associated with CDA or celiac disease in children at genetic risk.


  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden

Publishing year










Document type

Journal article




  • Pediatrics
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


  • Celiac disease
  • Celiac disease autoimmunity
  • Dietary supplements
  • Infant formula
  • Probiotics



Research group

  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit


  • ISSN: 2072-6643