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ludc web

Anna Wendt

Assistant researcher

ludc web

MicroRNAs in islet hormone secretion

Author

  • Jonathan L.S. Esguerra
  • Mototsugu Nagao
  • Jones K. Ofori
  • Anna Wendt
  • Lena Eliasson

Summary, in English

Pancreatic islet hormone secretion is central in the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis. During development of hyperglycaemia, the β-cell is under pressure to release more insulin to compensate for increased insulin resistance. Failure of the β-cells to secrete enough insulin results in type 2 diabetes (T2D). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules suitable for rapid regulation of the changes in target gene expression needed in β-cell adaptations. Moreover, miRNAs are involved in the maintenance of α-cell and β-cell phenotypic identities via cell-specific, or cell-enriched expression. Although many of the abundant miRNAs are highly expressed in both cell types, recent research has focused on the role of miRNAs in β-cells. It has been shown that highly abundant miRNAs, such as miR-375, are involved in several cellular functions indispensable in maintaining β-cell phenotypic identity, almost acting as “housekeeping genes” in the context of hormone secretion. Despite the abundance and importance of miR-375, it has not been shown to be differentially expressed in T2D islets. On the contrary, the less abundant miRNAs such as miR-212/miR-132, miR-335, miR-130a/b and miR-152 are deregulated in T2D islets, wherein the latter three miRNAs were shown to play key roles in regulating β-cell metabolism. In this review, we focus on β-cell function and describe miRNAs involved in insulin biosynthesis and processing, glucose uptake and metabolism, electrical activity and Ca2+-influx and exocytosis of the insulin granules. We present current status on miRNA regulation in α-cells, and finally we discuss the involvement of miRNAs in β-cell dysfunction underlying T2D pathogenesis.

Department/s

  • Diabetes - Islet Cell Exocytosis
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden

Publishing year

2018-09-01

Language

English

Pages

11-19

Publication/Series

Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism

Volume

20

Issue

Suppl 2

Document type

Journal article review

Publisher

Wiley-Blackwell

Topic

  • Endocrinology and Diabetes

Keywords

  • exocytosis
  • glucagon
  • insulin
  • metabolism
  • microRNA
  • α-cell
  • β-cell

Status

Published

Research group

  • Diabetes - Islet Cell Exocytosis
  • LUDC (Lund University Diabetes Centre)

ISBN/ISSN/Other

  • ISSN: 1462-8902