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Anita Ramelius

Biomedical analyst

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Few differences in cytokines between patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and their healthy siblings


  • Jannet Svensson
  • Stefanie Eising
  • David Michael Hougaard
  • Henrik Bindesbol Mortensen
  • Kristin Skogstrand
  • Lars Bjarke Simonsen
  • Bendix Carstensen
  • Anita Ramelius
  • Åke Lernmark
  • Flemming Pociot
  • Jesper Johannesen

Summary, in English

The cause of the worldwide increase in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is largely unknown. T cells are thought to play a role in disease progression. In contemporary research over the last decade, age- and gender-specific serum levels as well as changes of Th1 and Th2-related cytokines are not well described. From a population-based register of children diagnosed from 1997 to 2005 this study explores eight different cytokines at time of diagnosis. Only TGF-beta and IL-18 showed higher levels in patients compared to siblings in an adjusted model (p < 0.01): whereas the other seven cytokines were not significantly different. IL-1 beta, IL-18, IL-12, IL-10 and IL-4 were significantly higher among the youngest children and males had significantly lower levels of IL-10 and IL-12 but higher levels of TNF-alpha. During the nine-year study all of the cytokines increased except TGF-beta, which showed a slight decrease over time. The cytokine levels tended to be highest during summer and were most pronounced for IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha. In conclusion, serum levels of known beta-cell cytotoxic cytokines were indifferent in patients and siblings, while gender, age and season appear to exert some influence on the serum level and need to be explored further. The influence of time on systemic levels cannot be ignored and may reflect decay or environmental impact on the immune system. (C) 2012 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Celiac Disease and Diabetes Unit
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden

Publishing year







Human Immunology





Document type

Journal article




  • Immunology in the medical area



Research group

  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit


  • ISSN: 0198-8859