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Alexander Lind

Assistant researcher

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Multiplex agglutination-PCR (ADAP) autoantibody assays compared to radiobinding autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes and celiac disease


  • Felipe de Jesus Cortez
  • Alexander Lind
  • Anita Ramelius
  • Rasmus Bennet
  • Peter V Robinson
  • David Seftel
  • David Gebhart
  • Devangkumar Tandel
  • Marlena Maziarz
  • Daniel Agardh
  • Helena Elding Larsson
  • Markus Lundgren
  • Åke Lernmark
  • Cheng-Ting Tsai

Summary, in English

Multiplex Antibody-Detection by Agglutination-PCR (ADAP) assay was compared to singleplex standard radiobinding assays (RBA) to detect autoantibodies against insulin (IAA), GAD65 (GADA), islet antigen-2 (IA-2A), ZnT8 (ZnT8A) and tissue transglutaminase (TGA). Serum samples from 272 (114F/158M), 15-73 years of age healthy controls and 227 (109F/118M) newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes children, 1-11 years of age, were analyzed in both assay systems.The original WHO standard 97/550 and in-house reference standards for RBA were compared to ADAP. The ADAP and RBA generated parallel reference standards in all assays except TGA. Lower detection limits were observed in the ADAP assay for GADA,IAA and ZnT8A, markedly for TGA, but not for IA-2A. The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve AUC analyses for pairwise comparison of ADAP with RBA showed no difference for GADA (n.s.), ADAP greater AUC for IAA (p = 0.005), RBA greater AUC for IA-2A (p = 0.0004) and ZnT8A (p < 0.0001) while ADAP TGA had a greater AUC compared to both RBA TGA-IgG (p < 0.0001) and TGA-IgA (p < 0.0001) . These data suggest that the ADAP and RBA assays are comparable with equal performance for GADA, better ADAP performance for IAA while the RBA showed better performance in both IA-2A and ZnT8A associated with greater heterogeneity in autoantibody levels. The simultaneous analysis of 5 different autoantibodies by ADAP in sample volume reduced to only 4 μL and at an increased lower detection limit in all assays except IA-2A makes the ADAP automated autoantibody assay a distinct advantage for high throughput screening.


  • Paediatric Endocrinology
  • EXODIAB: Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden
  • Celiac Disease and Diabetes Unit
  • Diabetic Complications
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health

Publishing year





Journal of Immunological Methods



Document type

Journal article




  • Endocrinology and Diabetes



Research group

  • Paediatric Endocrinology
  • Celiac Disease and Diabetes Unit
  • Diabetic Complications


  • ISSN: 1872-7905