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Glutathione-s-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms and associations with type 1 diabetes age-at-onset.

  • L M Bekris
  • C Shephard
  • M Peterson
  • J Hoehna
  • B Van Yserloo
  • E Rutledge
  • F Farin
  • T J Kavanagh
  • Åke Lernmark
Publishing year: 2005
Language: English
Pages: 567-575
Publication/Series: Autoimmunity
Volume: 38
Issue: 8
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Abstract english

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic beta cell destruction involving auto-reactive T-cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of insulin. Monozygotic twin studies show a 20-60% concordance with T1D indicating there may be an environmental component to the disease. Glutathione (GSH) is the major endogenous antioxidant produced by the cell. GSH participates directly in the neutralization of free radicals and plays a role in the immune response. Glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs) conjugate GSH to free-radicals or xenobiotics. GST activity depletes GSH levels and may either detoxify or enhance the toxicity of a compound. Glutathione-s-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and glutathione-s-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) have polymorphic homozygous deletion (null) genotypes resulting in complete absence of enzyme activity. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes in Caucasian populations have frequencies of approximately 40-60% and 15-20%, respect


  • Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
  • glutathione-s-transferase
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • polymorphism
  • GSTT1
  • GSTM1
  • age-at-onset


  • ISSN: 0891-6934
E-mail: ake [dot] lernmark [at] med [dot] lu [dot] se

Principal investigator

Diabetes and Celiac Unit

+46 40 39 19 01

+46 70 616 47 79


Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Malmö


Lund University Diabetes Centre, CRC, SUS Malmö, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, House 91:12. SE-214 28 Malmö. Telephone: +46 40 39 10 00