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Prognostic factors for the course of β cell function in autoimmune diabetes

  • C. Törn
  • M. Landin-Olsson
  • Å Lernmark
  • J. P. Palmer
  • H. J. Arnqvist
  • G Blohmé
  • F Lithner
  • B. Littorin
  • L. Nyström
  • B. Scherstén
  • G. Sundkvist
  • L. Wibell
  • Jan Östman
Publishing year: 2000
Language: English
Pages: 4619-4623
Publication/Series: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume: 85
Issue: 12
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: The Endocrine Society

Abstract english

This study presents a 2-yr follow-up of 281 patients, aged 15-34 yr, diagnosed with diabetes between 1992 and 1993. At diagnosis, 224 (80%) patients were positive for at least one of the following autoantibodies: islet cell antibodies (ICAs), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAs), or tyrosine phosphatase antibodies (IA-2As); the remaining 57 (20%) patients were negative for all three autoantibodies. At diagnosis, C-peptide levels were lower (0.27; 0.16-0.40 nmol/L) in autoantibody-positive patients compared with autoantibody-negative patients (0.51; 0.28-0.78 nmol/L; P < 0.001). After 2 yr, C-peptide levels had decreased significantly in patients with autoimmune diabetes (0.20; 0.10-0.37 nmol/L; P = 0.0018), but not in autoantibody-negative patients. In patients with autoimmune diabetes, a low initial level of C-peptide (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.0) and a high level of GADAs (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.7) were risk factors for a C-peptide level below the reference level of 0.25 nmol/L 2 yr after diagnosis. Body mass index had a significant effect in the multivariate analysis only when initial C-peptide was not considered. Factors such as age, gender, levels of ICA or IA-2A or insulin autoantibodies (analyzed in a subset of 180 patients) had no effect on the decrease in β-cell function. It is concluded that the absence of pancreatic islet autoantibodies at diagnosis were highly predictive for a maintained β-cell function during the 2 yr after diagnosis, whereas high levels of GADA indicated a course of decreased β-cell function with low levels of C-peptide. In autoimmune diabetes, an initial low level of C-peptide was a strong risk factor for a decrease in β-cell function and conversely high C-peptide levels were protective. Other factors such as age, gender, body mass index, levels of ICA, IA-2A or IAA had no prognostic importance.


  • Endocrinology and Diabetes


  • ISSN: 0021-972X
E-mail: ake [dot] lernmark [at] med [dot] lu [dot] se

Principal investigator

Diabetes and Celiac Unit

+46 40 39 19 01

+46 70 616 47 79


Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Malmö


Lund University Diabetes Centre, CRC, SUS Malmö, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, House 91:12. SE-214 28 Malmö. Telephone: +46 40 39 10 00