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Åke Lernmark

Principal investigator

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High-titer GAD65 autoantibodies detected in adult diabetes patients using a high efficiency expression vector and cold GAD65 displacement.


  • Ida Jönsson
  • Kristian Lynch
  • Göran Hallmans
  • Åke Lernmark
  • Olov Rolandsson

Summary, in English

Adult type 2 diabetes patients with GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) are known as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). It has been suggested that GADA in LADA patients preferentially bind to the N-terminal end of GAD65. Using the N-terminal end extension of (35)S-GAD65 generated by the pEx9 plasmid, we tested the hypothesis that GADA in LADA patients preferentially react with (35)S-GAD65 from the pEx9 plasmid compared to the normal length pThGAD65 plasmid. Healthy control subjects (n = 250) were compared with type 1 (n = 23), type 2 (n = 290), and unspecified (n = 57) diabetes patients. In addition, radio-binding assays for GADA with (35)S-GAD65 generated from both the pEx9 and pThGAD65 plasmids were used in displacement assays with an excess of recombinant human GAD65 (2 mug/mL) to correct for non-specific binding. (35)S-GAD65 produced by either pEx9 or pThGAD65 did not differ in binding among the healthy controls and among the type 1 diabetes patients. Among the type 2 and unspecified patients, there were 4/290 and 3/57 patients, respectively, with binding to the pEx9 but not to the pThGAD65 generated (35)S-GAD65. In the displacement assay, we discovered 14 patients with very high-titer GADA among the type 1 (n = 3, 12,272-29,915 U/mL), type 2 (n = 7; 12,398-334,288 U/mL), and unspecified (n = 4; 20,773-4,053,580 U/mL) patients. All samples were fully displaced following appropriate dilution. We conclude that pThGAD65 is preferred for the coupled in vitro transcription translation of (35)S-GAD65 and that displacement with recombinant GAD65 may detect very high-titer GADA with possible clinical relevance.


  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • EXODIAB: Excellence in Diabetes Research in Sweden
  • StemTherapy: National Initiative on Stem Cells for Regenerative Therapy

Publishing year










Document type

Journal article


Taylor & Francis


  • Rheumatology and Autoimmunity



Research group

  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit


  • ISSN: 0891-6934