Your browser has javascript turned off or blocked. This will lead to some parts of our website to not work properly or at all. Turn on javascript for best performance.

The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Default user image.

Åke Lernmark

Principal investigator

Default user image.

Seroconversion to islet autoantibodies between early pregnancy and delivery in non-diabetic mothers


  • Sabina Lindehammer
  • Ida Jönsson
  • Bo Midberg
  • Sten Ivarsson
  • Kristian Lynch
  • Joakim Dillner
  • Åke Lernmark

Summary, in English

Islet autoantibodies are currently used to classify type 1 diabetes at diagnosis as they reflect the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease. The presence of maternal autoantibodies reactive with pancreatic islet antigens is thought to increase the risk for type 1 diabetes in the offspring. The objective of this study was to determine seroconversion to islet autoantibodies in non-diabetic mothers during pregnancy. Screening of 33,682 mothers between September 2000 and August 2004 in the Diabetes Prediction in Skane (DiPiS) study showed that at delivery, 242 non-diabetic mothers had increased titers of islet autoantibodies reactive with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), islet antigen-2 (IA-2A) or insulin (IAA), alone or in combination. Control mothers (n = 1419), who were islet autoantibody negative at delivery, were randomly selected and matched by age, parity and pregnancy sampling date. Mothers positive for GADA (92%), IA-2A (84%) or IAA (65%) at delivery had increased titers already evident in early pregnancy. Titers declined for GADA (p<0.0001). IA-2A (p<0.0001) and IAA (p<0.0001). Seroconversion during pregnancy was observed for GADA in 10 (8%), IA-2A in 3 (16%) and IAA in 37 (35%) mothers. It is concluded that non-diabetic mothers with islet autoantibodies at delivery had significantly higher titers during early pregnancy than at delivery. As the statistical power in the seroconverting mothers was insufficient, further studies are needed to determine if the risk for type 1 diabetes in the offspring differs between mothers who already had increased titers of islet autoantibodies during early pregnancy or acquired them during pregnancy. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • Paediatric Endocrinology
  • Medical oncology
  • Clinical Microbiology, Malmö
  • EXODIAB: Excellence in Diabetes Research in Sweden

Publishing year







Journal of Reproductive Immunology





Document type

Journal article




  • Endocrinology and Diabetes


  • Autoimmunity
  • Pregnancy
  • Seroconversion
  • Glutamic acid decarboxylase
  • autoantibody
  • Islet antigen-2 autoantibody
  • Insulin autoantibody



Research group

  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • Paediatric Endocrinology
  • Clinical Microbiology, Malmö


  • ISSN: 1872-7603