Your browser has javascript turned off or blocked. This will lead to some parts of our website to not work properly or at all. Turn on javascript for best performance.

The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Default user image.

Åke Lernmark

Principal investigator

Default user image.

Early-Pregnancy Cytokines in Mothers to Children Developing Multiple, Persistent Islet Autoantibodies, Type 1 Diabetes, or Both Before 7 Years of Age.


  • Sabina Lindehammer
  • Malin Fex
  • Marlena Maziarz
  • Ida Hanson
  • Karel Marsal
  • Åke Lernmark

Summary, in English

Citation Lindehammer SR, Fex M, Maziarz M, Hanson I, Marsal K, Lernmark Å on behalf of the Diabetes Prediction in Skåne (DiPiS) Study Group. Early-pregnancy cytokines in mothers to children developing multiple, persistent islet autoantibodies, type 1 diabetes, or both before 7 years of age. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011 Problem Increased levels of serum cytokines in early pregnancy may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. Method of study Early-pregnancy (between 10 and 16 gestational weeks) serum samples from non-diabetic index mothers (n = 48) of children who developed islet autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes, or both before 7 years of age were analyzed for IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, CXCL8, and TNF. Control mothers (n = 93) were matched for age, sampling date, and HLA-DQ genotypes. Results IFN-γ (P = 0.02) and IL-1β (P = 0.04) were elevated in the index mothers. All cytokines except IL-4 were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). IFN-γ [OR 1.39 (1.04, 1.85), P = 0.026] and possibly IL-2 [OR 1.21 (0.99, 1.48), P = 0.057] in early pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of multiple, persistent islet autoantibodies, type 1 diabetes, or both before 7 years of age in the offspring. However, the statistical significance for IL-2 was lost in the logistic regression when adjusted for gestational length at delivery and parity. Conclusion Increased Th1 cytokine levels during early pregnancy might contribute to an increased risk of islet autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes, or both in the offspring.


  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Lund)
  • EXODIAB: Excellence in Diabetes Research in Sweden
  • EpiHealth: Epidemiology for Health

Publishing year







American Journal of Reproductive Immunology



Document type

Journal article




  • Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine



Research group

  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit


  • ISSN: 1600-0897