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Åke Lernmark

Principal investigator

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Treatment outcome for IDDM patients in relation to glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies and serum IgG to periodontal pathogens


  • Tom J. Sims
  • Åke Lernmark
  • Todd Smith
  • Roy C. Page
  • G. Rutger Persson

Summary, in English

Background: Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) have elevated risk for periodontitis (PD) relative to subjects without diabetes. Whether refractory PD in IDDM patients is related to autoimmunity as indicated by serum glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody GAD Ab levels or to host bacterial immunity as reflected by serum antibody titers to periodontal pathogens is unknown. Aims: To determine if non-surgical periodontal treatment outcome differs between GAD Ab-seropositive and -seronegative IDDM patients by assessing the following parameters: (1) pretreatment serum levels of GAD Ab, (2) pretreatment serum IgG titers to key periodontal pathogens, and (3) changes in periodontal pocket probing depth (PDC) after treatment. Methods: Before and two months after periodontal treatment of 11 GAD Abseronegative and 7 -seropositive subjects, PDC was assessed and serum GAD Ab and IgG to Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Bacteroides forsythus (Bf), and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) were studied using established radioligand precipitation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. Results: The PDC decrease was significantly better for GAD Ab-seronegative subjects than for seropositive subjects (median 1.4 mm±0.5 s.d. versus 0.5 mm±0.3 s.d., p<0.03, Mann-Whitney). GAD Ab levels and PDC were positively correlated (r=+0.71, p<0.05) for sero-positive subjects but were neutral (r=-0.07) for seronegative subjects. Serum IgG to Pg and GAD Ab levels were positively associated (r2=0.42) in seropositive subjects. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that GAD Ab status was the primary discriminator for PDC (p<0.04). Conclusion: Detection of elevated GAD Ab levels in combination with elevated IgG titers to Pg before treatment is indicative of IDDM patients with refractory PD.

Publishing year







Journal of Clinical Periodontology





Document type

Journal article




  • Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
  • Bacteroides forsythus
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Glutamic acid decarboxylase
  • Periodontitis
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis




  • ISSN: 0303-6979