Your browser has javascript turned off or blocked. This will lead to some parts of our website to not work properly or at all. Turn on javascript for best performance.

The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Default user image.

Åke Lernmark

Principal investigator

Default user image.

GAD65-specific autoantibodies enhance the presentation of an immunodominant T-cell epitope from GAD65


  • Charlotta af Hällström-Reijonen
  • Terri L Daniels
  • A. Lernmark
  • Gerald T Nepom

Summary, in English

GAD65 autoantibodies (GAD65Ab) are highly prevalent in type 1 diabetes, but their functional role in the pathogenesis of the disease and their relationship to T-cell reactivity to GAD65 is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that GAD65Ab modulate presentation of GAD65 to T-cells. T-cell hybridoma T33.1, which recognizes the GAD65 274-286 epitope in the context of HLA-DRB1*0401, was incubated with antigen-presenting cells exposed to recombinant human GAD65 alone or complexed with GAD65Ab+ or GAD65Ab- sera. Stimulation of the T33.1 hybridoma was greatly enhanced by multiple GAD65Ab+ sera. The enhancement effect was most prominent with sera from patients with high GAD65 autoantibody levels. Sera from GAD65Ab- subjects had no effect. The correlation between T-cell stimulation and GAD65Ab levels was not absolute, suggesting that other variables such as autoantibody recognition of different regions of GAD65 and variable effects on processing of the 274-286 epitope may contribute. Uptake of antibody-complexed GAD65 was Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated because the enhancement of presentation was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against FcR. Our results support the hypothesis that GAD65Ab modulate presentation of GAD65 to T-cells. Increased antigen uptake and heterogeneity in the autoantibody specificity may provide a mechanism for antibody-facilitated T-cell response influencing the progression of type 1 diabetes.

Publishing year












Document type

Journal article


American Diabetes Association Inc.




  • ISSN: 0012-1797