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Åke Lernmark

Principal investigator

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The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) Study: 2018 Update


  • Heikki Hyöty
  • Åke Lernmark
  • William Hagopian
  • Jin-Xiong She
  • Desmond A Schatz
  • Anette G Ziegler
  • Jorma Toppari
  • Beena Akolkar

Summary, in English

Purpose of Review: The environmental triggers of islet autoimmunity leading to type 1 diabetes (T1D) need to be elucidated to inform primary prevention. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) Study follows from birth 8676 children with T1D risk HLA-DR-DQ genotypes in the USA, Finland, Germany, and Sweden. Most study participants (89%) have no first-degree relative with T1D. The primary outcomes include the appearance of one or more persistent islet autoantibodies (islet autoimmunity, IA) and clinical T1D. Recent Findings: As of February 28, 2018, 769 children had developed IA and 310 have progressed to T1D. Secondary outcomes include celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid disease. While the follow-up continues, TEDDY has already evaluated a number of candidate environmental triggers, including infections, probiotics, micronutrient, and microbiome. Summary: TEDDY results suggest that there are multiple pathways leading to the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Ongoing measurements of further specific exposures, gene variants, and gene-environment interactions and detailed “omics” studies will provide novel information on the pathogenesis of T1D. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • EXODIAB: Excellence in Diabetes Research in Sweden

Publishing year





Current Diabetes Reports





Document type

Journal article


Current Science inc.


  • Endocrinology and Diabetes


  • Autoimmunity
  • Children
  • Type 1 diabetes



Research group

  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit


  • ISSN: 1539-0829