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Does immune-tolerance treatment with Alum-formulated GAD65 protect insulin-production in the pancreatic islet β cells?

  • Helena Elding Larsson
  • Åke Lernmark
Publishing year: 2011-01-01
Language: English
Pages: 45-49
Publication/Series: Human Vaccines
Volume: 7
Issue: 1
Document type: Journal article review
Publisher: Landes Bioscience

Abstract english

Type 1 diabetes is a serious chronic disease in which the pancreatic islet beta cells are destroyed by autoimmunity specifically directed to intracellular autoantigens. Still undefined environmental factors are likely to initiate the disease process. One of the autoantigens is glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and attempts are made to induce immunological tolerance against this autoantigen. Alum-formulated GAD65 (Diamyd (®)) has been given subcutaneously in two injections with one month apart to recent onset type 1 diabetes patients with positive GAD65 autoantibodies. The injections were found to preserve residual β-cell function without treatment related serious adverse events. Phase III studies in children with recent onset type 1 diabetes are ongoing along with a study (DIAPREV-IT) aimed at testing whether Diamyd (®) may prevent the clinical onset of diabetes in non-diabetic children with GAD65 autoantibodies and at least one more islet autoantibody. Future studies may include investigation of Diamyd (®) in combination with other immunomodulating autoantigens.


  • Endocrinology and Diabetes
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Alum Compounds
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Clinical Trial, Phase III as Topic
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance
  • Immunization, Secondary
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Vaccination
  • Journal Article
  • Review


  • Paediatric Endocrinology
  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • ISSN: 1554-8600
E-mail: ake [dot] lernmark [at] med [dot] lu [dot] se

Principal investigator

Diabetes and Celiac Unit

+46 40 39 19 01

+46 70 616 47 79


Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Malmö


Lund University Diabetes Centre, CRC, SUS Malmö, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, House 91:12. SE-214 28 Malmö. Telephone: +46 40 39 10 00