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Staging Presymptomatic Type 1 Diabetes: A Scientific Statement of JDRF, the Endocrine Society, and the American Diabetes Association.

  • Richard A Insel
  • Jessica L Dunne
  • Mark A Atkinson
  • Jane L Chiang
  • Dana Dabelea
  • Peter A Gottlieb
  • Carla J Greenbaum
  • Kevan C Herold
  • Jeffrey P Krischer
  • Åke Lernmark
  • Robert E Ratner
  • Marian J Rewers
  • Desmond A Schatz
  • Jay S Skyler
  • Jay M Sosenko
  • Anette-G Ziegler
Publishing year: 2015
Language: English
Pages: 1964-1974
Publication/Series: Diabetes Care
Volume: 38
Issue: 10
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: American Diabetes Association

Abstract english

Insights from prospective, longitudinal studies of individuals at risk for developing type 1 diabetes have demonstrated that the disease is a continuum that progresses sequentially at variable but predictable rates through distinct identifiable stages prior to the onset of symptoms. Stage 1 is defined as the presence of β-cell autoimmunity as evidenced by the presence of two or more islet autoantibodies with normoglycemia and is presymptomatic, stage 2 as the presence of β-cell autoimmunity with dysglycemia and is presymptomatic, and stage 3 as onset of symptomatic disease. Adoption of this staging classification provides a standardized taxonomy for type 1 diabetes and will aid the development of therapies and the design of clinical trials to prevent symptomatic disease, promote precision medicine, and provide a framework for an optimized benefit/risk ratio that will impact regulatory approval, reimbursement, and adoption of interventions in the early stages of type 1 diabetes to prevent symptomatic disease.


  • Endocrinology and Diabetes


  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • ISSN: 1935-5548
E-mail: ake [dot] lernmark [at] med [dot] lu [dot] se

Principal investigator

Diabetes and Celiac Unit

+46 40 39 19 01

+46 70 616 47 79


Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Malmö


Lund University Diabetes Centre, CRC, SUS Malmö, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, House 91:12. SE-214 28 Malmö. Telephone: +46 40 39 10 00