Javascript is not activated in your browser. This website needs javascript activated to work properly.
You are here

Caesarean Section on The Risk of Celiac Disease in the Offspring : The Teddy Study

  • Sibylle Koletzko
  • Hye-Seung Lee
  • Andreas Beyerlein
  • Carin A. Aronsson
  • Michael Hummel
  • Edwin Liu
  • Ville Simell
  • Kalle Kurppa
  • Åke Lernmark
  • William Hagopian
  • Marian Rewers
  • Jin-Xiong She
  • Olli Simell
  • Jorma Toppari
  • Anette G. Ziegler
  • Jeffrey Krischer
  • Daniel Agardh
Publishing year: 2018
Language: English
Pages: 417-424
Publication/Series: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Volume: 66
Issue: 3
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Abstract english

OBJECTIVE:: Caesarean section (C-section) is associated with various immune-mediated diseases in the offspring. We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery and celiac disease (CD) and CD autoimmunity (CDA) in a multinational birth cohort. METHODS:: From 2004 to 2010 infants from the general population who tested positive for HLA DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 were enrolled in The Environmental Determinants for Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Children were annually screened for transglutaminase autoantibodies, if positive re-tested after 3–6 months and those persistently positive defined as CDA. Associations of C-section with maternal (age, education level, parity, pre-pregnancy weight, diabetes, smoking, weight gain during pregnancy) and child characteristics (gestational age, birth weight) were examined by Fisherʼs exact test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CDA or CD were calculated by Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS:: Of 6,087 analyzed singletons 1600 (26%) were born by C-section (Germany 38%, US 37%, Finland 18%, Sweden 16%), the remaining vaginally without instrumental support; 979 (16%) had developed CDA and 343 (6%) CD. C-section was associated with lower risk for CDA (HR?=?0.85, [95% CI 0.73, 0.99], p?=?0.032) and CD (HR?=?0.75, [95% CI 0.58, 0.98], p?=?0.034). After adjusting for country, sex, HLA-genotype, CD in family, maternal education and breastfeeding duration, significance was lost for CDA (HR?=?0.91, [95% CI 0.78, 1.06], p?=?0.20) and CD (HR?=?0.85, [95% CI 0.65, 1.11], p?=?0.24). Pre-surgical ruptured membranes had no influence on CDA or CD development. CONCLUSION:: C-section is not associated with increased risk for CDA or CD in the offspring.


  • Pediatrics


  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • ISSN: 0277-2116
E-mail: ake [dot] lernmark [at] med [dot] lu [dot] se

Principal investigator

Diabetes and Celiac Unit

+46 40 39 19 01

+46 70 616 47 79


Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Malmö


Lund University Diabetes Centre, CRC, SUS Malmö, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, House 91:12. SE-214 28 Malmö. Telephone: +46 40 39 10 00