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Åke Lernmark

Principal investigator

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Glutamate decarboxylase antibodies in non-diabetic pregnancy precedes insulin-dependent diabetes in the mother but not necessarily in the offspring


  • Sten-A. Ivarsson
  • Malin Ackefors
  • Göran Ekberg
  • Alberto Falorni
  • Ingrid Kockum
  • Mona Landin-Olsson
  • Åke Lernmark
  • Bengt Lindberg
  • Göran Sundkvist
  • Lars Svanberg
  • Annelie Carlsson

Summary, in English

We studied the risk for diabetes of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65Ab) and islet cell (ICA) autoantibodies in non-diabetic pregnant mothers and their children. Pregnancy and cord blood sera were collected in 1970-87 from about 35,000 mothers who delivered a child in the city of Malmo, Sweden. A total of 42 mothers were identified in 1988 who, 1-18 years after their pregnancies, had developed either insulin-dependent (n = 22) or non-insulin dependent (n = 20) diabetes mellitus. First, in 123 pregnant mothers selected as controls, 0.8% had GAD65Ab and 0.8% ICA. Second, among the mothers with non-insulin dependent diabetes, 7/20 (35%) had GAD65Ab eight months to 13 years, 10 months before clinical diagnosis. Third, in mothers who later developed insulin-dependent diabetes, 12/22 (55%) had GAD65Ab and 10/22 (45%) had ICA in pregnancies preceding the clinical diagnosis by 13 months to 9 years, 4 months. In 1996, none of the children born to the 42 mothers have developed diabetes. GAD65Ab and ICA in non-diabetic pregnancies may predict insulin-dependent diabetes in the mother but not necessarily in the offspring.


  • Paediatric Endocrinology
  • Medicine, Lund
  • Diabetes lab
  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • Paediatrics (Lund)
  • PediatricCeliaki/Diabetes

Publishing year












Document type

Journal article


Taylor & Francis


  • Clinical Medicine


  • Autoimmunity
  • Glutamic acid decarboxylase
  • HLA
  • Islet cell autoantibodies
  • Placental transfer
  • Pregnancy
  • autoantibody
  • enzyme antibody
  • glutamate decarboxylase
  • pancreas islet cell antibody
  • adult
  • article
  • clinical article
  • controlled study
  • female
  • human
  • insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • risk
  • Sweden



Research group

  • Paediatric Endocrinology
  • Diabetes lab
  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • PediatricCeliaki/Diabetes


  • ISSN: 0891-6934