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Åke Lernmark

Principal investigator

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Periodontal conditions, retinopathy, and serum markers in individuals with type 1 diabetes

Author

  • Cecilia Widén
  • Helene Holmer
  • Susanna Sättlin
  • Stefan Renvert
  • Åke Lernmark
  • G Rutger Persson

Summary, in English

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes is high and increasing. Periodontitis has been identified as a risk factor in both type 1 and 2 diabetes. The study purpose was to assess periodontal conditions, retinopathy, and serum glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) titers in relation to retinopathy in individuals with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D).

METHODS: The study is a case series. Adult individuals with a diagnosis of T1D (n = 85) monitored ≥five years were recruited from an endocrinology clinic. Peripheral venous blood samples were analyzed including assessments of serum HbA1c levels and GADA titers. Medical and periodontal conditions were examined, and the data assessed. Independent t-tests, binary and multivariate analyses, chi square and odds ratios were employed.

RESULTS: Gingivitis was found in 68.2%, periodontitis in 21.2%, and retinopathy in 64.7%, GADA (≥35 U/ml) in 54.1%, and serum HbA1c > 48 mmol/mol in 94.3% of the individuals. The unadjusted odds ratio for periodontitis to differentiate a diagnosis of retinopathy was 7.3 (95%CI 1.6, 4.4, p <0.01). Multivariate analyses identified the following dependent factors to differentiate retinopathy; age, T1D duration, gingivitis, periodontitis at p < 0.001, gender, and serum GADA at P < 0.01, and by the number of remaining teeth at P < 0.05.

CONCLUSION: Retinopathy as a complication to T1D is linked to the duration of diabetes, age of the individual and with increasing severity to periodontitis. Periodontal intervention studies are warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Department/s

  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • EXODIAB: Excellence in Diabetes Research in Sweden

Publishing year

2020-11

Language

English

Pages

1436-1443

Publication/Series

Journal of Periodontology

Volume

91

Issue

11

Document type

Journal article

Publisher

American Academy of Periodontology

Topic

  • Endocrinology and Diabetes
  • Dentistry

Status

Published

Research group

  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit

ISBN/ISSN/Other

  • ISSN: 0022-3492