Your browser has javascript turned off or blocked. This will lead to some parts of our website to not work properly or at all. Turn on javascript for best performance.

The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Default user image.

Åke Lernmark

Principal investigator

Default user image.

Genetic Variation Within the HLA-DRA1 Gene Modulates Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes in HLA-DR3 Homozygotes


  • Özkan Aydemir
  • Janelle A Noble
  • Jeffrey A Bailey
  • Åke Lernmark
  • Patrick Marsh
  • Agnes Andersson Svärd
  • Frank Bearoff
  • Elizabeth P Blankenhorn
  • John P Mordes

Summary, in English

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) involves the interaction of multiple gene variants, environmental factors, and immunoregulatory dysfunction. Major T1D genetic risk loci encode HLA-DR and -DQ. Genetic heterogeneity and linkage disequilibrium in the highly polymorphic HLA region confound attempts to identify additional T1D susceptibility loci. To minimize HLA heterogeneity, T1D patients (N = 365) and control subjects (N = 668) homozygous for the HLA-DR3 high-risk haplotype were selected from multiple large T1D studies and examined to identify new T1D susceptibility loci using molecular inversion probe sequencing technology. We report that risk for T1D in HLA-DR3 homozygotes is increased significantly by a previously unreported haplotype of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the first intron of HLA-DRA1. The homozygous risk haplotype has an odds ratio of 4.65 relative to the protective homozygous haplotype in our sample. Individually, these SNPs reportedly function as "expression quantitative trait loci," modulating HLA-DR and -DQ expression. From our analysis of available data, we conclude that the tri-SNP haplotype within HLA-DRA1 may modulate class II expression, suggesting that increased T1D risk could be attributable to regulated expression of class II genes. These findings could help clarify the role of HLA in T1D susceptibility and improve diabetes risk assessment, particularly in high-risk HLA-DR3 homozygous individuals.


  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit
  • EXODIAB: Excellence in Diabetes Research in Sweden

Publishing year












Document type

Journal article


American Diabetes Association Inc.


  • Endocrinology and Diabetes
  • Genetics



Research group

  • Diabetes and Celiac Unit


  • ISSN: 1939-327X