Immunogenetics of Type 1 Diabetes
The HLA DQ locus is the major genetic risk factor for both type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. Both diseases are also linked to several non−HLA candidate genes, which may modify risk. Several but different etiological factors in the environment have also been implicated in the disease risk for type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is strongly associated with the appearance of autoantibodies against GAD65, IA−2, ZnT8 and insulin, alone or in combination. Our laboratory cloned human islet GAD65 and developed a novel assay now in worldwide use to detect these autoantibodies and other autoantibodies such as those against tissue transglutaminase that predict celiac disease.
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